The following article by Christopher Bird is looked upon as one of the key articles responsible for making the Rife microscope known today. This article is hard to find on the internet and we are glad to be able to release it here. We have tried to show the article here as close as possible to how it was originally published.
What has become of the
Written by Christopher Bird
New Age Journal, Boston, March 1976, pp 41-
Click here to see original article
This article, like an embryo or any living thing, is still growing. A continuation of this growth may depend upon the assistance of NAJ readers, their colleagues and their friends.
Originally I intended to write a short note on what was known about the Rife microscope. Precious little is in print on the subject.
One day, while waiting for some material to come up from the cellar-
The card was filed under "Allied Industries" as if that firm were the author. The company's address was stated to be 4246 Pepper Drive, San Diego, California. The title referenced was "History of the Development of a Successful Treatment for Cancer and Other Virus, Bacteria and Fungi."
At the bottom of the card was a single line: "Written by Dr. R.R. Rife."
Entirely by accident I had stumbled upon what looked to be only one of a series of reports written by Royal Raymond Rife. Fourteen pages long. it was numbered Dev-
Are any of these gentlemen alive today?
Was Allied Industries a research corporation established by Rife?
How many other reports did it publish and where are they?
The report so riveted my attention that I was compelled to explore some of the history of microbiology and its connection to cancer and other disease. The present article, much longer than originally planned, is thus the result of a fortuitous finding -
Much more needs to be done to tell the story of Rife and his microscope. A fascinating episode in the history of science.
In February 1944 the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia published an article, "The New Microscopes," in its prestigious journal devoted to applied science. Founded in 1824 by "philosophermechanics," the institute, which recently made studies in its physics laboratory on the best way to move the Liberty Bell. to its new Bicentennial Year location, is a smaller analog of the huge world-
Authored by R.E. Seidel, M.D., a. Philadelphia physician and his research assistant, M. Elizabeth Winter, the essay opened with a six-
This microscope is today standard equipment in modern laboratories.
The article closed with a ten-
Rife's scope, the largest model of which consisted of 5,682 parts and required a large bench to accommodate it, overcame the greatest disadvantage of the electron microscope, its inability -
With his invention Rife was able to look at living organisms. What he saw convinced him that germs could be not the cause, but the result of disease; that depending on its state, the body could convert a harmless bacterium into a lethal pathogen; that such pathogens could be instantly killed, each by a specific frequency of light; and that cells, regarded as the irreducible building-
Though with the aid of Rife's device, thousands of still pictures and hundreds of feet of movie film were made to reveal these facts, all of this material and the Rife microscopes seem to have disappeared without a trace.
Or have they?
Calls to the U.S. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Medical Museum, which has hundreds of different microscopes in its historical collection, to the National Library of Medicine's historical Division, to the Smithsonian Institution and the Frankin Institute, both repositories for outstanding scientific inventions, and to a dozen establishments dealing daily in microscopy elicited from curators, medical pathologists, physicians and other scientific specialists only the complaint that none of them had ever heard of Royal Raymond Rife and his microscope.
What has become of the Rife microscope?
The question is not rhetorical for if even half of the possibilities described for this astounding discovery, are true, a massive effort to hunt it down and reactivate its potential might not only save billions of dollars in biological and medical research but open a fascinating new vista onto the nature of life.
From the start, Rife's main goal was to find cures for disease, especially the most intractable of all diseases, cancer. Because he had a hunch that some as yet undiscovered micro-
In the 1920's it became obvious to Rife that a better means of scrutinizing the micro-
At the Rife Research Laboratory on Point Loma, California, he worked at magnifications of 17,000 and higher, to-
The Rife microscope has several arresting features. Its entire optical system of fourteen lenses and prisms, as well as an illuminating unit, were made of crystal quartz which is transparent to ultra-
Rife maintained that he could thus select a specific frequency, or frequencies, of light which coordinated and resonated with a specimen's chemical constituents so that a given specimen would emit its own light of a characteristic and unique color. Specimens could be easily identified, thus solving one of microscopy's greatest bugaboos. It was control of Illumination which turned the tricks of light.
Another feature was the microscope's extraordinary resolution, its ability to reveal the most minute of component parts of any specimen so that each may be seen distinctly and separately from the others. Imagine two extremely thin parallel lines. When they can be clearly distinguished you are still within the microscope's range of resolution. If the parallel lines blur together, high magnification will only enlarge the distortion and limit of resolution has been attained. With a resolving power of 31,000 diameters -
This is somewhat equivalent to one aerial camera's being able to spot individual houses in city blocks from a very great height while another is able only fuzzily to distinguish the single city blocks themselves.
Beginning in the 1920's and continuing over seven years, Rife and his colleagues worked on more than 20,000 laboratory cultures of cancer obtained from the Paradise Valley Sanitarium in National City, California, in what appeared at first to be a fruitless effort to isolate micro-
Up to then bacteria had clearly been proved to be linked with a wide variety of ills including tuberculosis, leprosy, cholera, gonorrhea. syphilis, typhoid, bubonic plague, pneumonia and others. But no one had found them in association with cancer.
In contrast to the much smaller viruses, bacteria were widely considered to be unicellular, monomorphic -
There are various forms for each shape. Of the round-
While outside a host, or body, bacteria are hard to raise, or culture. Each type has been studied as a pure culture only by isolating it upon a specific nutrient, called media.
Bacteria also have specific maximum, minimum, and optimum temperatures at which they will live and multiply. Some, like polar bears, are addicted to Artic temperatures and even live in Ice. Other: prefer water so hot It would kill most animals. A great many enjoy the temperature of the human body. Millions of them are living, harmlessly, inside, you right now.
But they are not always harmless. They can acquire virulence, or the power to cause disease under some conditions but not others, although even today no one knows exactly why.
This mystery, in the 1920's, was closely connected to a debate in microbiology so hot as to seem almost like a war. On one side were those who affirmed as do many textbooks today, that bacteria were eternally monomorphic. They could not assume other or smaller forms, as small, say, as a virus.
Originally, virus -
Because they were so small, viruses would pass through filters which did not allow the passage of bacteria, said to be monomorphic, just as a net of small enough mesh will allow minnows to pass through it but bring the fish that are preying upon them up short. It is this filter-
For several decades, however, another school of microbiologists maintained that, far from holding everlastingly to one shape, bacteria were pleomorphic or form-
Because of their sharp disagreement on the filtrability of bacteria, the two camps came to be called "filtrationist" and "non-
One of the earliest of the. filtrationists was a Swedish physician arid explorer, Ernst Bernhard Almquist, for whom islands off the north Siberian coast are named. Almquist made hundreds of observations of pleomorphic bacteria in his laboratory as did researchers in Italy, Russia, France, Germany and the United States. In 1922, after two decades of work, Almquist came to the conclusion that "nobody can pretend to know the complete life cycle and all the varieties of even a single bacterial species. It would be an assumption to think so."
Way back in 1914, the American bacteriologist, Dr. Edward C. Rosenow, had the gall to assert that bacteria were not unalterable and that various strains, or what one might call sub-
What Rife's opinions were about this heated controversy are not known. He followed the standard bacteriological practice of the day, first implanting small patches of cancer tissues on various nutritive media including a special "K" medium developed by another filtrationist, Dr. Arthur Isaac Kendall, at the Northwestern University School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois. The medium, which bore the first letter of Kendall's name, seemed to have the faculty of transforming bacteria into the transitional forms alleged for them by the filtrationist school.
No matter how often he changed menus for his sought-
It was apparently only when, as result of his continuing physical experimentation with the effects of light frequencies, he discovered that many microbes respond to the effects of light from noble gases, such as neon, xenon and argon, by changing their growth patterns that Rife hit upon a solution to the problem that was nagging him.
He placed a sealed test-
Readers may well wonder why he adopted so strange and novel a process. The question is just as unanswerable as if put about Rife's next step: in order, he said, to counter the ionization, he placed the tube into a two-
Under his microscope, at 20,000X, the tube now teemed with animated forms measuring only 1/20 by 1/15 of a micron -
He called this form Bacillus X and, later, because it was so much smaller than other bacilli, and perhaps because of the filterability controversy, BX virus. This problem of nomenclature can be resolved herein by referring to Rife's organism as a BX form, or simply BX.
Rife writes that "this method of ionization and oxidation brought the chemical refraction of BX out of the ultraviolet and into the visible band of the spectrum. Owing to the fact that the test-
Because he could culture his BX form, so small it would pass through any filter, he seemed to have discovered a filterable form of a bacterium. But just finding bacteria, even in filterable form, in a human tumor does not necessarily imply that they are its cause. To make sure, it is held they must be reinjected into animals and seen to cause the same or nearly similar disease, after which they must then be reisolated and shown to resemble the original organism. These were the postulates propounded by the German pioneer bacteriologist, Robert Koch, who proved that tuberculosis was apparently caused by the tubercule bacillus.
Following this accepted procedure, Rife inoculated the new BX forms into over 400 rats in all of which there subsequently appeared "tumors with all the true pathology of neoplastic tissue." Some of the tumors became so large they exceeded the total weight of the individual rats in which they were developing. When the tumors were surgically removed, the BX form was recovered from them in all cases. Koch's postulates were fulfilled.
By continued microscopical study and repeated photography to stop their motion, Rife and his co-
"Slightly" in Rife's case meant an alteration in the nutrient environment of only two parts per million by volume. Those who would consider this unlikely may recall that in homeopathic medicine doses of remedies are given in dilutions of this weakness and beyond. Even though they have nothing chemically analyzable in them, they are effective.
One such alteration caused the BX to become what Rife called a Bacillus Y, or BY. It was still the same purplish-
With the second change of the medium, the BY enlarged still further into a monococcoid or single disk form which, when properly stained, could be viewed under a standard research microscope. Rife claimed that these forms could be found in the blood of over 90% of cancer victims.
By removing this form from the fluid medium it inhabited and depositing it onto a hard base of asparagus or tomato agar, Rife then saw it miraculously develop into a fungus, making it kin to a yeast, mold or mushroom.
Any of these succeeding forms, Rife stated, could be changed back within thirty-
The transformation did not stop with the fungus which, if allowed to stand dormantly as a stock culture for a year and then replanted onto the asparagus medium, would then change into bacillus coil, millions of which live in the human intestine. This common bacillus could pass, in Rife's words, "any known laboratory method of analysis."
Because he had found that micro-
To this end, he had been developing concurrently with his microscopic equipment a special frequency emitter which he continued to improve, up to at least 1953, as steady advances in electronics continued. The killing waves were projected through a tube filled with helium gas and said to be efficient in destroying micro-
With this device he noted that when the proper mortal oscillatory rate was reached, many lethal organisms such as those of tuberculosis, typhoid, leprosy, hoof-
The obvious next step was to determine whether similar radiation would affect the BX, not in culture, but in the bodies of cancer-
The answer was so resoundingly yes that, in our day when billions are being spent each year to find a cure for cancer, it is prudent to quote Rife's report word for word: "The first clinical work on cancer was completed under the supervision of Milbank Johnson, M.D., which was set up under a special medical Research Committee of the University of Southern California. Sixteen cases were treated at the clinic for many types of malignancy. After three months, fourteen of these so called hopeless cases were signed off as clinically cured by a staff of five medical doctors and Alvin G. Foord, M.D., pathologist for the group. The treatments consisted of three minutes duration using the frequency instrument which was set on the mortal oscillatory rate for BX, or cancer, at three-
News of Rife's work began to leak out to the world of medicine at the end of the 1920's. One of the first to learn of it was Arthur W. Yale, M.D., who lived in San Diego, not far from Rife's laboratory. He acquired a frequency emitter and began to treat cancerous patients.
In 1940, reporting to his fellow physicians on some of his decade-
Yale had had limited success in treating cancerous tumors with X-
Dr. Arthur Isaac Kendall whose "K" medium Rife had used in his experimentation, was also determined to check whether viable bacteria in the filterable state could be unequivocally seen by Rife's microscope. Kendall had been working with cultures of typhoid bacillus and, under a standard microscope, had been able to detect a swarm of active granules that could be seen only as tiny motile points. Because nothing of their individual structure could be ascertained, Kendall could not diagnose them with certainty to be filterable forms of the bacillus.
In order to make certain, he went to California in late November of 1931 and examined his cultures under a Rife microscope at 5,000 diameters in the Pathological Laboratory of the Pasadena Hospital. The facilities were afforded through the offices of the same Drs. Johnson and Foord who had worked with Rife on the BX.
When Rife finally got them in focus, the tiny granules were seen to be bright, highly motile, turquoise-
To further confirm their findings, Rife and Kendall next examined eighteen-
This was somewhat equivalent to being able to observe a caterpillar, its cocoon and the butterfly which emerges from the cocoon, all simultaneously.
When they transplanted the filter-
At this juncture, the American bellwether journal, Science, got wind of Kendall's work and, in a news story devoted to it, referred to the new super microscope invented by Royal Raymond Rife. The same month, December 1931, the Rife-
The editorial was significantly entitled: "Is a New Field About to Be Opened in the Science of Bacteriology?"
Apparently it was about to die aborning.
The following month Kendall was invited to give the De Lamar lecture at the John Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, before the Association of American Physicians. As a leader of the filtrationist school he attracted the attention of his adversaries, two of whom were invited as discussants.
The first was an irascible, pugnacious curmudgeon, Dr. Thomas Rivers, of the well-
When he learned of his invitation to discuss Kendall's presentation of the work with the typhoid bacillus, Rivers hurriedly repeated experiments on which Kendall had worked for years and, by his own account, got no proof of Kendall's claim. Based on this thin evidence, he arose at the Johns Hopkins meeting and, to quote him, "in a very temperate manner called the fellow a liar. Not in so many words. Actually, all I said was that I couldn't repeat this experiment and I therefore didn't believe his findings were true."
Rivers was followed in the discussion by the Harvard microbiologist, Dr. Hans Zinsser, also a "non-
In the midst of the venom and acerbity the only colleague to come to Kendall's aid was the grand old man of bacteriology, and first teacher of the subject in the United States, Dr. William H. "Popsy" Welch, who evidently looked upon Kendall's work with some regard.
What is of interest today is that at the Baltimore meeting there seemed to be no mention of the Rife microscope. Also, in light of the apparent victory of the "non-
Kendall's work, however, attracted the rapt attention of the same Dr. Edward C. Rosenow who, in 1914, had been able to prove that strains of streptococcus were able, under the right conditions, to transmute one into the other. In that day he had written that these "conditions were more or less obscure. They seem to call forth new or latent energies which were previously not manifest and which now have gained the ascendency."
As a filtrationist, Rosenow was a maverick among bacteriologists up to his death at 94 in the 1960's. His work had convinced him, also prior to World War I, that organisms in sera -
The main implication of Rosenow's work in his own eyes was that bacteria were not as important to disease as the terrain on which they found themselves. "It would seem," he wrote in his 1914 article, "that focal infections are no longer to be looked upon merely as a place of entrance of bacteria but as a place where conditions are favorable for them to acquire the properties which give them a wide range of affinities for various structures."
Rosenow first became aware of the Rife technique through a patient at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, where Rosenow was employed. The patient was none other than the same Henry H. Timken who had financially aided Rile to develop his microscope and begin his research in the 1920's.
Rife came to Chicago with his microscope. Kendall invited Rosenow down to the Northwestern University Medical School to work with himself and Rife on July 5, 1932. For three days they made a restudy of the Kendall forms, Rosenow working with a Zeiss microscope, Kendall with an oil immersion dark-
The three next decided to filter cultures of the streptococcus bacteria which Rosenow had found to be associated with poliomyelitis to see what the Rife scope might reveal. What they saw were not the blue bodies linked to the typhoid bacillus -
Moreover filtrates of a virus considered to be the cause of encephalitis showed a considerable number of round forms, singly and in pain, which under the special Rife illumination were pale pink in color and. somewhat smaller than those seen in the poliomyelitis preparations.
Rosenow's work was panned by River in. public forum just as viciously as was Kendall's. This was before Rosenow had worked with the Rife microscope. "I had one run-
This belief did not last for long. For a variety of reasons, including the very difficult methods of culturing the filterable forms of bacteria -
Three filtrationists, writing of discoveries similar to those of Kendall, just prior to Kendall's Johns Hopkins lecture, thus considered it necessary to state in their introduction: "It has come about these days that to express convictions that differ from the consensus gentium becomes almost professional foolhardiness: it brings down the strictures of one's friends and enemies alike."
They added: "But we are also conscious of the fact that, beneath the tumult of controversy between monomorphism and pleomorphism, there is being born a new epoch in bacteriology, the limits of the significance of which and the possible future expansion of which no one can yet surmise."
Like all scientific revolutions the epoch would have to wait patiently for its time to come. Rosenow was held by his adversaries to be 100 percent wrong in many of his observations. His son, Dr. Edward C. Rosenow Jr., chief Administrative 0fficer of the American College of Physicians, asserts that his father was all but accused by Rockefeller Institute research moguls of experimental dishonesty.
How was it that none of Kendall's or Rosenow's attackers bothered to use the Rife microscope? Rife himself admitted that he was not confident that his experiments, revealing the BX form, could ever be repeated without the use of his scope. "We do not expect any laboratory," he wrote, "to be able to produce the BX on account of the technique involved and adequate optical equipment. This is why we have never publicly announced that BX is the cause of cancer but we have succeeded in producing from its inoculation tumors with all the true characteristics and pathology of neoplastic tissue from which we have repeatedly recovered the BX virus."
At the end of his life Rosenow was philosophic about lack of acceptance for his findings among his colleagues. "There is no way," he told his son, "to convince one's peer group of something new until their attitude of receptivity changes. They simply won't listen." This echoes the German Nobel laureate in physics, Max Planck, who stated that for new ideas to be accepted, one had to wait for a generation of scientists to die off and a new one to replace it.
With respect to Rife's cancer observations, it may be that this process of replacement is now taking place.
Rife's work has a possible connection with research performed over the last twenty years by several pioneers. One pair of them are Dr. Irene Diller, a former long-
One day in the late 1950's Diller called Seibert, who won many awards and five honorary doctorates for her more than thirty-
After several weeks Diller showed Seibert a tube filled with a slightly grayish and moist-
Seibert became convinced that Diller might have found a link to cancer. Because so many scientists, believing DiiIer's new forms to be merely "ubiquitous contaminants" in her cultures, were writing off her work as spurious, Seibert decided to continue working on the problem during her Florida retirement, first at the Mound Park -
Blood samples from cancer patients with varying types of leukemia were obtained and from every one of them Seibert was able to isolate pleomorphic microbes. These bacterial forms were also isolated from tumors, and with an homologous vaccine they decreased tumor in mice. Just like those of the Rife-
Today there is great stir about, and much money devoted to, viruses in relation to the cancer problem. The most recent edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica states that "sufficient evidence has been acquired to indicate that one or more viruses probably cause cancer in man," and that carcinogens, or cancer-
But so far, little support is given to those who ascribe bacteria and the forms into which they transmute the ability for close association with cancer. This legacy of the non-
These days, because various bacterial forms have been noted to have anomalies in their cellular walls -
Sufficient data, writes Mattman, have been amassed to warrant reinvestigation, and adds: "There is no subject generally viewed with greater skepticism than an association between bacteria and human cancer. However, the medical profession may look back with irony at the stony reception given by his home colleagues to Koch's paper elucidating the etiology of tuberculosis. Similarly, medical students were once taught that whooping cough vaccination was an unrealistic dream reported only by two women at the Michigan Public Health Laboratories and by a pediatrician named Sauer."
Most importantly, she concludes: "One must always consider that most malignancies are accompanied by an immuno-
This is very close to Rife's own statement that he had unequivocally demonstrated that "it was the chemical constituents and chemical radicals of an organism which enacted upon the unbalanced cell metabolism of the human body to produce disease." Before he died, Rife stated: "We have in many instances produced all the symptoms of a disease chemically in experimental animals without the inoculation of any virus or bacteria into their tissues."
What, then, of Royal Raymond Rife and his microscope?
How is it that biologists and physicians, other than Kendall and Rosenow, did not rush to investigate it? Why haven't physicists looked into the effects Rife achieved with electromagnetic waves of specific frequencies upon disease, including cancer'?
Similar effects were observed by Dr. Georges Lakhovsky in Paris who developed a wave emitter called a multi-
Are the strange blue, motile forms which Dr. Wilhelm Reich discovered in the late 1930's and for which he coined the word bions related to the fore-
In cancerous patients Reich observed the bions to degenerate into what he called T-
In Copenhagen, a biophysicist, Scott Hill, reports that a new book written in Russian by two researchers at the Kazakh State University in the USSR deals with a whole new branch of medical science in which "healing" of various disorders is being accomplished by the use of ultraweak, monocromatic laser light. Shades of Rife.
The Lee Foundation for Nutritional Research in Milwaukee, Wisconsin maintains that Rife, his microscope? and his life work were tabooed by leaders in the U.S. medical profession and that any medical doctor who made use of his practical discoveries was stripped of his privileges as a member of the local medical society.
Rife himself died three or four years ago. Considerable digging has not established what happened to his estate. The remarkable instrument he conceived and developed and its photographic evidence may still be in existence. They are worth looking for.
The assistance of NAJ readers is solicited.
Seldel, R.E. MD and M. Elizabeth Winter, "'The New Microscopes," Journal of the Franklin InstItute, February, 1944.